Ethereum’s Catalysts Driven Gains Have Just Begun

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Contents

geth –fast stalls before crossing finish line #15001

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Dirksterson commented Aug 18, 2020 •

System information

Geth version: geth version 1.5.9-stable, Go1.7.4
OS & Version: OSX 10.12.6 MacMini 4GB RAM (latest MacMini doesn’t support field RAM upgrade anymore) VDSL connection with an average of 20-40Mbit throughput. Ethereum Wallet 0.9.0
Commit hash : (if develop )

Expected behaviour

fast sync to current latest block followed by auto disabling

Actual behaviour

stalling from a few thousand blocks up to a few hundred to current latest block. Tries to catch up to latest block, but number of new blocks is greater than the speed of adding fast blocks. Never auto disables fast sync mode.

Steps to reproduce the behaviour

Removedb and geth –fast –cache=1024. 5 times on that machine over the last weeks.

Fast sync is already my workaround, starting a fresh fast sync from scratch. Before I was unsuccessful on that machine trying to sync with existing blockchain data instead. This was also a lost race of catching up to the latest block on that machine. This workaround was good until now.

Today even the workaround in fast sync mode (cache -1024) will not completely load the blockchain anymore. It catches up some hundred blocks to the latest block and stalls for hours. By the time it catches up a few hundred blocks, the latest block moved ahead again. The closer geth is getting to import to the latest block (at time of writing 4173161), the slower it gets. It does not catch up anymore. Tried 5 times now over the last weeks and giving up at around 4-5 days each.

Does the machine not meet todays minimum hardware requirement anymore or is this a major bug?

Backtrace

latest block 13 hours ago (!)

I0818 00:15:26.444933 core/blockchain.go:805] imported 148 receipts in 2.775s. #4169952 [e3f556fc… / 36f4d3c9…]

latest header chain 50 minutes ago

I0818 12:47:45.107445 core/headerchain.go:342] imported 1 headers in 4.954ms. #4173009 [350d1426… / 350d1426…]

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currently only importing nothing but state entries

I0818 13:36:41.103101 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 172 state entries in 10.009s: processed 10010213, pending at least 129361
I0818 13:36:41.103131 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 384 state entries in 783.519ms: processed 10010597, pending at least 129361
I0818 13:36:41.103154 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 381 state entries in 6.963s: processed 10010978, pending at least 129361
I0818 13:36:41.103167 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 25 state entries in 87.654ms: processed 10011003, pending at least 129360
I0818 13:36:46.014244 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 384 state entries in 2.482s: processed 10011387, pending at least 127584
I0818 13:36:49.074483 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 381 state entries in 7.082s: processed 10011768, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074553 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 384 state entries in 7.971s: processed 10012152, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074574 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 384 state entries in 3.772s: processed 10012536, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074603 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 162 state entries in 5.822s: processed 10012698, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074622 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 25 state entries in 4.050s: processed 10012723, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074639 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 381 state entries in 3.060s: processed 10013104, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074742 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 85 state entries in 7.117s: processed 10013189, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074765 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 375 state entries in 2.219s: processed 10013564, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074782 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 87 state entries in 3.915s: processed 10013651, pending at least 127105
I0818 13:36:49.074795 eth/downloader/downloader.go:966] imported 23 state entries in 271.734ms: processed 10013674, pending at least 127104

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kevingentile commented Aug 20, 2020

I have been having a similar issue recently. Ubuntu 16.04. Stalling on the last

100-200 blocks. Restarting the geth client has allowed for some of those missing blocks to be processed but it does not keep up with the highest block. The only fluctuation I see in eth.syncing is the number of knownStates and pulledStates.

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Shem-Tov commented Aug 20, 2020

I am having the exact same issue as Laughing Cabbage has described, also on Ubuntu 16.04, and also stuck on the last few hundred blocks.
I am running geth1.6.7, at the moment. I have also tried versions 1.7.0, 1.6.6 and 1.6.5, with the same issue. I have tried applying –fast, and have tried without it.
When I restart geth, it usually gets a few more blocks in, and starts “downloading” the chain structure from 0. Downloading is in parenthesis, because when checking the folder into which it should be downloading, the folder access date and time does not change, nor can I find any other folder to which it saves the chain structure to.
Leaving it overnight, will get a chain structure in the millions, but the blocks will still not sync.
Searching the web, I have seen this problem exists for many people, for a very long time, across every platform, and with every version of geth, and no one has come up with any kind of solution. And since I am at best an amateur programmer, I have given up with geth.
I will try parity.io now, hopefully they have allowed people with little and no programming skills to connect to ethereum, and if not, then my solution is to give up on ethereum all together. That will solve the headache this issue is starting to create :-)
I’ll check back with geth when in reaches version 2.

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kevingentile commented Aug 21, 2020

If any current devs think they might have a lead as to where a good starting point might be for tracking this issue I’m happy to do some bug hunting, please let me know.

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tomtom87 commented Aug 21, 2020 •

@Dirksterson @laughingcabbage I have exactly the same issues for past week and so do many of my colleagues.

After latest advice to run –fast –cache=1024 i now get the following:

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csillag commented Aug 21, 2020

Same here. I am also on v1.6.7.

Current status, after running it for more than a week:

Downloading block 4,179,697 of 4,179,911,
Downloading chain structure 8,242,414 of 8,246,476

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csillag commented Aug 21, 2020

Isn’t this a duplicate of #14988 and also #14995?

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darksh1ne commented Aug 21, 2020

The similar issue here. On Aug, 16th I had almost fully synced blockchain, just 10-20 hours behind the current block. I then started geth as:

All the time geth is behind the current block. Currently (Aug, 21st) its state is:

whereas etherscan.io shows 4185672 as the last block.

There are no errors in geth’s output, it is in its normal state of slowly importing new segments and using HDD at speed 5-10 MB/s (both reading and writting). No high CPU usage.

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tomtom87 commented Aug 22, 2020

same issue here, started around the same time. Looks like this is throughout everyone and affecting parity users also now

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gdassori commented Aug 28, 2020

Hello, Ubuntu 16.04 here and same issue: got stuck on the last

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2000 blocks. — You are receiving this because you commented. Reply to this email directly, view it on GitHub, or mute the thread.

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MrHash commented Sep 1, 2020 •

Same problem. Can’t sync last

100 blocks on 1.6.7. Restarting gets close but lots of Stalling state sync, dropping peer messages. SSD and fibre connection.

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100 blocks on 1.6.7. Restarting gets close but lots of Stalling state sync, dropping peer messages — You are receiving this because you commented. Reply to this email directly, view it on GitHub, or mute the thread.

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wtfiwtz commented Sep 2, 2020 •

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alfkors commented Sep 3, 2020

@wtfiwtz I don’t really know enough about the whole process, but I would say yeah probably. for what it’s worth.

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wtfiwtz commented Sep 6, 2020

I was able to get it to successfully sync up, after switching from fast sync to normal sync and giving it a day or two to catch up on the last 35,000 or so blocks – using a 2020-era MacBook Pro with an SSD drive. It was necessary to be on the the latest block to be able to successfully submit a transaction with the Ethereum “Mist” wallet (or you get an error about insufficient gas).

Not sure if the light mode would make any difference, but I think you need to do it will a brand new wallet, not an existing blockchain download.

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wtfiwtz commented Sep 23, 2020

Ok I had to restart the sync from the beginning and have hit this problem again.

This is what I have found. Blocks are getting discarded from peers because the chain height is incorrectly set to 0.

The height is retrieved from a callback function such as this:

So this is probably an issue with switching between fast and normal sync modes, where the chain height is assumed to be 0 when it should be equal to the fast chain height on initialization.

Is this an area you are familiar with @karalabe since you did the original fast sync implementation?

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wtfiwtz commented Sep 23, 2020

If the peer’s total diffficulty is much lower, does that mean they are only on the full sync mode and won’t work with a fast sync peer?

Pretty much can’t find any peers that are not with a significantly lower total difficulty!

This worries me because of the following comment:

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wtfiwtz commented Sep 24, 2020 •

Ok I left it running this morning, and at some point, it flipped from fast to full mode when it received just 1 more chain segment or block receipts (it hadn’t received any for at least 1.5 hours since I last restarted):

The key log messages here are Committed new head block , Imported new block receipts and Imported new chain segment , which allows the full head blockchain count to update.

So I’m guessing that the network is starved of fast blocks, and they haven’t yet reached their intended pivot point . before they flip to full mode.

Also note that you can’t force it to use full mode on the command line, it doesn’t work.

Is there some way to force this flipping from fast to full mode prematurely? Perhaps if we haven’t received a new chain segment for over an hour? Or find a peer that has what we are looking for with a more broader peer search?

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wtfiwtz commented Sep 25, 2020

You’ll probably find it much easier to be on Parity (https://parity.io) – the wallet can do a light-mode sync in around 20-30 minutes. this is a good short-to-medium term solution. However, on Mac you need to be on OS X Sierra (or use the brew install instead)

I think someone needs to re-architect the fast sync in geth as the client needs to reach out to more diverse peers when it gets “stuck” for long periods of time like this. I have a few ideas, but very limited time, and it really needs to be done (or reviewed) by someone who knows what they are doing :P

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wtfiwtz commented Apr 15, 2020

Actually the latest 1.8.2 and above should save its current sync state: #16224

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wtfiwtz commented Apr 15, 2020 •

@Mergathal that is the nature of a blockchain-based approach. Since BitCoin only has blocks targeting every 10 minutes, the throughput is lower and the number of blocks is lower.

Ethereum generates a new block every 30-60 seconds, allowing more transactions and faster response times. There will naturally be more data generated due to this approach. The data would need to be pruned somehow to keep it at a reasonable level.

Interestingly, in http://www.freekpaans.nl/2020/04/anatomy-geth-fast-sync/, it only took 77Gb of data in the blockchain stored locally for a completed fast sync. I’ve routinely destroyed fast syncs with much more data than that (. I have limited space on MacBook Pro). It seems to me that the longer that you are pulling down the state tries, the more data that is stored locally. It may also depend on how long you are “full syncing” for as well, once the fast sync is complete. I’m yet to fully understand why but it’s an interesting observation.

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garyng2000 commented Apr 15, 2020

we constantly ‘refresh’ by fast sync from scratch to keep the size in check. An initial fast sync is only around 60G(as of may be a month ago) then the size grow. after one month we are seeing 140G. Not sure if it is because older state needs to be pulled in or what. Does anyone with ‘true’ full sync knows the current disk size ?

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wtfiwtz commented Apr 15, 2020

@garyng2000 a full sync took 220Gb according to the articles linked above. So it would be approximately 80Gb a month as a “fast sync” switches to a “full sync”.

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garyng2000 commented Apr 15, 2020

@wtfiwtz
that is something puzzle me, if it is 80GB a month we are talking TB data soon but how come a ‘true’ full sync is only 220G ? If that is the case, may be I should do a true full sync(from scratch) that can take a bit of time but the disk growth rate would be slower ? strange.

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wtfiwtz commented Apr 15, 2020

@garyng2000 it could be because the accumulated state is bigger as you participate in the immediate verification of the transactions, where as post-verification is not as much information to download from peers. However, you would need someone more knowledgeable about Ethereum’s inner workings to confirm or deny that.

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GeeeCoin commented Apr 20, 2020 •

I’m on geth v1.8.4 and Ubuntu 16.04. Not only is geth stopping before final sync, but it completely stalls around 30-60 minutes after starting a sync. The CPU usage drops to

3% of capacity and stays there.

I see continuous error messages for connecting to nodes, and the state and blocks completely stop updating. I have to restart geth (I use systemd restart). This is very concerning because I don’t want my node to stall in the middle of serving our dapp.

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suspended commented Apr 20, 2020

@GeeeCoin you might want to try v1.8.3 – have a simular issue to yours when I moved from .3 to .4

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GeeeCoin commented Apr 21, 2020 •

@suspended v1.8.6 has the same unresolved issue. **downgrading to geth v1.8.3 worked for about 3 weeks, but now facing the same issues

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mtj151 commented May 13, 2020 •

I am also having the same sync problems. dropping peers etc. I am almost synced (about 50-100 blocks behind if I let it run). If I restart geth it catches up until peers start to drop again.

Using Ubuntu 16.04. I have tried different versions of Geth down to 1.8.2. Built the dev version too with no change.

I have lots of experience running a node having done it since the start. but I did re-download the block chain a month or 2 ago.

I use a SATA 500GB SSD but it is encrypted on the drive level and the home directory which is where the blockchain is stored. The encryption means that the read/write abilities are slower and using a disk monitor it shows a high level of activity constantly while geth is running.

I understand storing/using the blockchain on encrypted drive is probably not the best setup (for speed and amount of read writes/life of SSD) so I’m guessing the next thing I should try is a new separate un-encrypted SSD to store the chain. but I have not got round to doing so yet (having another SSD purely for eth blockchain is fairly expensive option). Currently my chaindata folder is 358.8GB

Looks like Ubuntu 16.04 is a consistent part of this thread/problem?

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GeeeCoin commented May 17, 2020

@mtj151 good observation. I’m not ruling out any factors at this point. Is anyone using AWS by any chance?

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mtj151 commented May 21, 2020

I have also noticed that I am unable to send transactions while I am getting the “Synchronisation failed, retrying err=”block download cancelled (requested)”” warnings.

I sent one transaction fine but then the warnings come up and it wouldn’t let me send another transaction (even after the messages stopped and syncing started again). I had to completely restart geth to be able to send the transaction.

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ghost commented May 25, 2020 •

@GeeeCoin I was unable to get a Geth node to stay up to date with chaintip on AWS in any meaningful time without using Provisioned IOPS SSDs on EBS-optimized instances or the i3 storage-optimized instances with 8GB RAM or greater. Even then, I had to write a watchdog to kick geth over every now and then for when it would drop all its peers or lag too much behind the chaintip. Now I just have dedicated boxes for geth nodes running NVMe SSD in the datacenter, and a NUC for LAN dev which has a 1 TB SATA SSD, 8GB RAM and a quad-core processor.

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GeeeCoin commented May 25, 2020

@10a7 appreciate the data point. If NUC is outperforming a quad core with 8GB in AWS, that’s a problem. Amazon may have network latency that hasn’t been optimized with the t. class. The i3 looks like an option. We’re taking a look at Quarian; thanks for building that out!

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mtj151 commented Jun 7, 2020 •

Sounds like 10a7 had the same problem with lagging behind the chain tip. good description of the problem. Did NVMe SSD fix the problem?? I’m looking at getting one in the coming weeks to run geth.

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ghost commented Jun 7, 2020 •

@mtj151 NVMe SSD doesn’t seem to matter. I have no trouble keeping SATA SSDs and bcache-fronted magnetic arrays intact and synced I/O wise.

If you are synced and “importing new chain segment”, it seems to mostly be network issues that cause my nodes to fall behind. Restarting geth often helps to get different peers. Geth sync-after-fast-pivot is also much more reliable for me if I am not behind a NAT, and can forward/open 30303/tcp.

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jdowning100 commented Jun 17, 2020

FWIW I was able to get geth to fully sync by waiting until eth.blockNumber is near the numbers in eth.syncing and then restarting geth. I was able to do this at

160m states. After restarting geth, it took about 20 min to catch up to the blockchain and now eth.syncing is false and the only output now is ‘imported new chain segment’ every time a new block is found.

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karalabe commented Oct 4, 2020

@
Syncing Ethereum is a pain point for many people, so I’ll try to detail what’s happening behind the scenes so there might be a bit less confusion.

The current default mode of sync for Geth is called fast sync. Instead of starting from the genesis block and reprocessing all the transactions that ever occurred (which could take weeks), fast sync downloads the blocks, and only verifies the associated proof-of-works. Downloading all the blocks is a straightforward and fast procedure and will relatively quickly reassemble the entire chain.

Many people falsely assume that because they have the blocks, they are in sync. Unfortunately this is not the case, since no transaction was executed, so we do not have any account state available (ie. balances, nonces, smart contract code and data). These need to be downloaded separately and cross checked with the latest blocks. This phase is called the state trie download and it actually runs concurrently with the block downloads; alas it take a lot longer nowadays than downloading the blocks.

So, what’s the state trie? In the Ethereum mainnet, there are a ton of accounts already, which track the balance, nonce, etc of each user/contract. The accounts themselves are however insufficient to run a node, they need to be cryptographically linked to each block so that nodes can actually verify that the account’s are not tampered with. This cryptographic linking is done by creating a tree data structure above the accounts, each level aggregating the layer below it into an ever smaller layer, until you reach the single root. This gigantic data structure containing all the accounts and the intermediate cryptographic proofs is called the state trie.

Ok, so why does this pose a problem? This trie data structure is an intricate interlink of hundreds of millions of tiny cryptographic proofs (trie nodes). To truly have a synchronized node, you need to download all the account data, as well as all the tiny cryptographic proofs to verify that noone in the network is trying to cheat you. This itself is already a crazy number of data items. The part where it gets even messier is that this data is constantly morphing: at every block (15s), about 1000 nodes are deleted from this trie and about 2000 new ones are added. This means your node needs to synchronize a dataset that is changing 200 times per second. The worst part is that while you are synchronizing, the network is moving forward, and state that you begun to download might disappear while you’re downloading, so your node needs to constantly follow the network while trying to gather all the recent data. But until you actually do gather all the data, your local node is not usable since it cannot cryptographically prove anything about any accounts.

If you see that you are 64 blocks behind mainnet, you aren’t yet synchronized, not even close. You are just done with the block download phase and still running the state downloads. You can see this yourself via the seemingly endless Imported state entries [. ] stream of logs. You’ll need to wait that out too before your node comes truly online.

Q: The node just hangs on importing state enties?!

A: The node doesn’t hang, it just doesn’t know how large the state trie is in advance so it keeps on going and going and going until it discovers and downloads the entire thing.

The reason is that a block in Ethereum only contains the state root, a single hash of the root node. When the node begins synchronizing, it knows about exactly 1 node and tries to download it. That node, can refer up to 16 new nodes, so in the next step, we’ll know about 16 new nodes and try to download those. As we go along the download, most of the nodes will reference new ones that we didn’t know about until then. This is why you might be tempted to think it’s stuck on the same numbers. It is not, rather it’s discovering and downloading the trie as it goes along.

Q: I’m stuck at 64 blocks behind mainnet?!

A: As explained above, you are not stuck, just finished with the block download phase, waiting for the state download phase to complete too. This latter phase nowadays take a lot longer than just getting the blocks.

Q: Why does downloading the state take so long, I have good bandwidth?

A: State sync is mostly limited by disk IO, not bandwidth.

The state trie in Ethereum contains hundreds of millions of nodes, most of which take the form of a single hash referencing up to 16 other hashes. This is a horrible way to store data on a disk, because there’s almost no structure in it, just random numbers referencing even more random numbers. This makes any underlying database weep, as it cannot optimize storing and looking up the data in any meaningful way.

Not only is storing the data very suboptimal, but due to the 200 modification / second and pruning of past data, we cannot even download it is a properly pre-processed way to make it import faster without the underlying database shuffling it around too much. The end result is that even a fast sync nowadays incurs a huge disk IO cost, which is too much for a mechanical hard drive.

Q: Wait, so I can’t run a full node on an HDD?

A: Unfortunately not. Doing a fast sync on an HDD will take more time than you’re willing to wait with the current data schema. Even if you do wait it out, an HDD will not be able to keep up with the read/write requirements of transaction processing on mainnet.

You however should be able to run a light client on an HDD with minimal impact on system resources. If you wish to run a full node however, an SSD is your only option.

Doryani’s Catalyst

Doryani’s Catalyst
Vaal Sceptre Sceptre
Quality: +20%
Physical Damage: (122.4-146.4)– (204-276)
Critical Strike Chance: 6.00%
Attacks per Second: (1.55-1.61)
Weapon Range: 11 Requires Level 75, 113 Str, 113 Int 32% increased Elemental Damage Socketed Gems are Supported by Level 20 Elemental Proliferation
Adds (65-85) to (100-160) Physical Damage
(11-15)% increased Attack Speed
(6-10)% increased Cast Speed
(30-40)% increased Global Critical Strike Chance
0.2% of Elemental Damage Leeched as Life
(80-100)% increased Elemental Damage The result of the catalytic reaction would be either immortality for all,
or death for all. It was a risk Doryani was willing to take. Purchase Costs

Unique 8x Chaos Orb

Sell Price
8x Alchemy Shard
17x Alteration Shard
Physical: (253.6-340.0)

Total: (253.6-340.0) Miscellaneous
Item class: Sceptres

Doryani’s Catalyst is a unique Vaal Sceptre Vaal Sceptre Sceptre
Physical Damage: 37– 70
Critical Strike Chance: 6.00%
Attacks per Second: 1.40
Weapon Range: 11 Requires Level 64, 113 Str, 113 Int 32% increased Elemental Damage .

Contents

Modifiers

Applicable skill gems socketed in this item are supported by level 20 Elemental Proliferation Support Elemental Proliferation Support Cold, Fire, Lightning, Support, AoE
Icon: S
Mana Multiplier: 110% Supports any skill that hits enemies, or could otherwise apply elemental ailments. Per 1% Quality:
0.5% increased Duration of Elemental Ailments on Enemies Elemental Ailments caused by Supported Skills spread to other enemies in a Radius of (12-15)
20% chance to Freeze, Shock and Ignite
(0-19)% increased Duration of Elemental Ailments on Enemies This is a Support Gem. It does not grant a bonus to your character, but to skills in sockets connected to it. Place into an item socket connected to a socket containing the Active Skill Gem you wish to augment. Right click to remove from a socket. . All support stats are accounted for, including the mana multiplier.

Item acquisition

Monster restrictions

This item can be acquired from the following monsters:

Legacy variants

Doryani’s Catalyst has a legacy variant.

Using a Blessed Orb Blessed Orb Stack Size: 20 Randomises the numeric values of the implicit modifiers of an item Right click this item then left click another item to apply it.
Shift click to unstack. on a legacy Doryani’s Catalyst from before version 2.3.0 will double the value of its implicit modifier to 20% rather than raising it to the current value of 32%. [1]

Version Discontinued Modifiers
2.3.0
  • 10% increased Elemental Damage
  • Socketed Gems are Supported by level 20 Elemental Proliferation
  • Adds (65-85) to (100-160) Physical Damage
  • (11-15)% increased Attack Speed
  • (6-10)% increased Cast Speed
  • (30-40)% increased Global Critical Strike Chance
  • 0.2% of Elemental Damage Leeched as Life
  • (80-100)% increased Elemental Damage

Build of the Week

Doryani’s Catalyst was featured in Season 2 Episode 11 of the Build of the Week series released by Grinding Gear Games.

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6. Classical music is not only for professionals or the privileged few.

7. When writing music, composers should consider several target groups.

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Вы услышите запись дважды.

Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись

A. Trevor thinks everybody loves the beach.

B. Amanda doesn’t like to spend time on the beach.

C. Trevor goes surfing only on the weekends.

D. Trevor comes to the beach exclusively to surf.

E. Trevor is about 25 years old.

F. On the beach Trevor has all he needs.

G. Trevor is not in Australia now.

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3—9 выберите цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись

The snow crystals grow from .

What does Jane say about a snow crystal’s shape?

1. It’s absolutely different for every crystal.

2. It may be in one of two basic patterns.

3. It doesn’t depend on the air temperature.

I According to Jane, why does snow seem to be blue sometimes.

1. Because of peculiarities in the light reflection.

2. Because of the amount of sunlight.

3. Because of the distance we look at it from.

According to Jane, which places are more likely to get more snowfall.

1. Any highlands.

3. Coastal territorifes.

Which of the following may be a symptom of an illness caused by snow?

2. Irrational behavior.

Which of the following is among Jane’s recommendations to a driver caught in a snow storm?

1. Leave the car immediately.

2. Don’t turn on the engine.

3. Put a bright object above the car.

Which positive use of snow does Jane NOT mention?

1. Production of electricity.

2. Growing crops.

3. Drinking water provision.

Раздел 2. Чтение

1. То take from home

2. Evening drinks

3. Food for relaxation

4. Skipping the meal

5. Foreign cuisine

6. Unusual meals

7. Traditional morning meal

8. Take it ready to eat

A. If you go to a hotel in Britain and ask for a typical English breakfast, you will probably get bacon and eggs, sausage, mushrooms, baked beans, tea and toast. When porridge juice are offered as well, the meal is sometimes advertised as a “full Engilsh breakfast”. Many years ago people couldn’t imagine their breakfast without a bowl of cerea or usual bacon and eggs.

B. But how many people in England actually eat an English breakfast? Only one person in ten. One in five people say all they have for breakfast is a cup of coffee, and many children go to school without eating anything. That is happening because people lack time. They are always in a hurry and prefer to choose something light and ready-made, especially in the morning.

C. If in Britain you stay with a family, you will almost certainly be given a «packed lunch» to eat for your midday meal. Some factories and schools have canteens where a packed lunch is the most common thing to eat. A packed lunch usually consists of some sandwiches, a packet of crisps, an apple, and a can of something to drink, for example, Coca-Cola. The quality of the packed lunch can vary.

D. Fish and chips is the classic English takeaway food. It is usually bought ready cooked at special shops – fish and chip shops, or «chippies» as they are sometimes called. This takeaway food is wrapped in paper to be eaten at home or outside. If you go to a fish and chip shop, you’ll be asked if you want salt and vinegar to be sprinkled over your chips. Be careful because sometimes they give you too much.

E. If you have trouble getting off to sleep, don’t panic. There are plenty of healthy, low fat alternatives to pills to help you nod off. Why not try a glass of warm skimmed milk, or even a cup of camomile tea? These natural and low-fat drinks will help you to get asleep. They can also relax you after a difficult day.

F. Every British town has Indian or Chinese restaurants. There are more Chinese takeaways than there are fish and chips shops in the UK. But most people are eating curry Curry is now Britain’s most popular meal because the majority of British people like spicy food. But British people like food from other countries, too. They say it allows them to understand other cultures better.

G. Eating carbohydrate-rich foods like bread, cereal, rice and pasta causes the production of serotonin, which makes us feel calm. Fruit and vegetables also set off the production of this chemical. Milk and cheese are also useful. The next time you feel stressed, try a little piece of bread and a glass of milk and you’ll feel better in no time.

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке лишняя.

1. depending on the survey and the time of year

2. rotating disk with holes arranged in a spiral pattern

3. could be measured in the thousands

4. could capture moving images

5. funding a number of research programmes

6. transmitting images 16 years before

7. had lived in a house without electricity

Few inventions have had as much effect on contemporary society, especially American society, as television. Before 1947 the number of U.S. homes with television sets A ______ . By the late 1990s, 98 percent of U.S. homes had at least one television set, and those sets were on for an average of more than seven hours a day. The typical American spends (B ______ ) from two-and-a-half to almost five hours a day watching television.

The invention of TV is not credited to one single person. Vladimir Zworykin and Philo Farnsworth both played instrumental roles. Electronic television was first successfully demonstrated in San Francisco on Sept. 7, 1927. The system was designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, a 21-year-old inventor who C ______ until he was 14. While still in high school, Farnsworth had begun to think of a system that D ______ in a form that could be coded onto radio waves and then transformed back into a picture on a screen. Boris Rosing and Vladimir Zvorykin in Russia had conducted some experiments in E ______ Farnsworth’s first success.

Also, a mechanical television system, which scanned images using a F ______ , had been demonstrated by John Logic Baird in England and Charles Francis Jenkins in the United States earlier in the 1920s. However, Farnsworth’s invention and Vladimir Zvorykin’s electronic TV system are the direct ancestors of modern television.

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

I was nine when this started. That was in 1964, the year my mother left us. Chess led me to Horatio – chess and my father and my absent mother and the fact that on that day, I broke the rule about not showing what you feel. My form-master of that year at the private day-school I went to was a chess enthusiast. He explained the rules to us, he encouraged us to play. He was kind to me and I admired him, more than admired: I wanted to be where he was. I suppose I was more than usually responsive to kindness just at that time. To please him I tried hard to be good at chess and I discovered that I was good. I had a natural talent, the master said.

I joined the school chess club. I took part in tournaments and distinguished myself. Shining at few things, for a brief season I shone at chess. I studied the game, I read the accounts of historic encounters, the ploys of long-dead masters, and I played them out alone. I would set out the pieces at random, then sweep them off and try to replace them from memory. At night, I would picture the chess board, go through the moves of some legendary end-game and find consolation.

A colleague of my father was there one Sunday afternoon – my father was a senior official at the Treasury. “Your father tells me you are quite a chess-player.” On his reddish face an indulgent look. “At least by his own report,” my father said with a sarcastic smile. He seemed to suggest I had boasted. Perhaps I had. “Not up to your level, Henry, not yet.” Henry, Harry, Humphrey. A chessplayer ot note. Fancy a game, young man?

We played and I won. He still had half his pieces on the board when l checkmated him. I leasure in victory, expectation of praise – face and voice were not yet practiced enough, I suppose I showed my feelings too clearly. My father looked at me, but uttered no word. He went out, came back with a book from his study, brought it over for me to see. “Look here,” he said, the colleague meanwhile looking on. “Look at these people here.”

He had opened the book roughly in the middle. There were two faces, one on either side: William Pitt the Younger and Horatio Nelson. Neither name meant anything to me at the time. Later, ot course, I knew them tor close contemporaries -Horatio was a year older and died three months earlier.

“Take a good look,” my father said. “These two men saved our country, they had reason to be pleased with themselves.”

He meant it for my benefit or so I like to think. He did not want me to be jubilant in victory, to overrate small achievements. He wanted to inspire me with worthy ambitions. But in his mannei and tone I sensed displeasure; he was not pleased at my success, it had disturbed his sense of the natural order.

My interest in chess did not long survive that day, the lesson in humility proved the death-blow to it. I continued to play during what was left of the term, but my heart was not in it, I lost the appetite for victory, my game fell off. In the autumn, Monty and I were sent away to boarding school and I never played chess again.

Вставьте подходящее по смыслу слово (a-j) в пропуски предложений (1-10) в тексте:

a) safeguarding f) financing

b) credit g) interest

c) mortgage h) lending

d) securities i) capital

e) debt j) conditions

With the (1) ……… crunch, Fannie and Freddie, the country’s (2)…………. giants, have become more important than ever, (3) ………… some 80% of mortgages. So they will need to keep (4) .………….. .Nor is the scope to offload their portfolios of mortgage-backed

(5) …………. , given that there are scarcely any buyers of such (6)……… . And if the Fed has to worry about (7) ………………. Fannie and Freddie, can it afford to raise (8) …………… rates to combat inflation? American monetary policy may be constrained. Fannie and Freddie can survive without raising (9) …………… until market (10) …………….. improve.

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