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Affect vs. Effect
Affect and effect are easy to mix up. Here’s the short version of how to use affect vs. effect. Affect is usually a verb, and it means to impact or change. Effect is usually a noun, an effect is the result of a change. Watch out! There are certain situations and fixed phrases that break the general usage rules for these words.
Now that the basics are out of the way, the time has come to learn the intricacies of how to use affect and effect effectively. Or is it affectively? If you’re lucky, it may well be a little bit of both. (For the curious, effective would mean successful in this context. And when it comes to grammar, success is the goal.)
The Difference Between Affect and Effect
Is it affect or effect? In a nutshell, affect is a verb and effect is a noun. At least (spoiler alert!), most of the time. In the majority of cases, you’ll encounter the words as these parts of speech.
So, if A affects B, B experiences the effect of A’s action.
Imagine Ruby (A) pushes Raphael (B) into a pond. Ruby affects where Raphael is standing. Raphael being wet is the effect of Ruby’s irresistible urge to push him into a pond.
Because Ruby performed an action, that signals the use of a verb: affect. The result, or effect, of that verb is “wetness,” a noun that is probably causing Raphael a whole lot of discomfort.
Affect and effect are different parts of speech, but they sound almost identical. Sound-alike pairs like affect vs. effect are tricky because many people pronounce them as homophones, which means, well, that they sound alike. Bear/bare, here/hear, and write/right are other examples. So when it comes to writing the right word, here are the rules to help you bear the struggle.
When to Use Affect
Affect means to influence or to produce a change in something.
Examples of Affect
Note that in that last example, the men are “affected” because they are changed by the disturbing events of war, but that this change has an emotional factor, too. When a person is affected by an event, that often means that the effect is mainly on the level of emotion or psychology. More on that in the exceptions section.
When to Use Effect
Effect is a noun, and it means the result of a change. So, if an event affects your life, you will feel the event’s effect.
Examples of Effect
And here’s a twofer, just for fun:
Affect vs. Effect: How to Remember the Difference
In sum: keep your eyes on the prize. In this case, the prize is the first letter of each word. Don’t forget: “Affect” starts with A for Action—meaning it’s a verb—and with “Effect,” you can jump straight from “Cause” to “Effect” over that convenient E.
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If you get that letter trick memorized, it should affect your spelling of these words immediately. In other words, make sure you spell them correctly.
Watch out for Exceptions!
Now that you’ve mastered the basic difference—effect as a noun and affect as a verb—it’s time to shake things up. In some contexts, effect is a verb and affect is a noun. Thanks a lot, English.
Effect as a Verb
Effect as a verb means to bring about. It usually shows up with nouns like “change” or “solutions.”
In other words, they wanted to bring about the effect of change—maybe by getting the government to change its policies or even step down.
If you use affect here, it would mean “to have an effect on change” or “to impact change.” Protesters who want to “affect change” would be trying to impact existing changes. That’s nice, but not as powerful as creating change, especially when there’s a corrupt government on the line.
It doesn’t have to be quite so revolutionary, either. This one is about social media:
What once seemed like a trivial way to keep in touch with friends, sharing photos and jokes, has become a force for societal change, […] empowering citizens of the world to unite and effect change in a number of ways.
If this discussion about social media had to do with citizens trying to “affect change,” that would probably mean that they’re trying to speed up, slow down, or totally stop all forms of change that have to do with social media. Ironically, it might be easier to effect change with a really powerful Facebook movement than to affect the changes that are happening to society because of the widespread use of social media. Funny how that works, right?
Affect as a Noun
Affect as a noun means feeling, emotion, or specific emotional response.
Sounds like the patient was in kind of a blah mood. Not too complicated (except maybe for the patient).
Understanding more about the primary innate affects and the plasticity of the brain has important clinical implications.
Say what? This is a great example of complex psychological jargon you might find in a psychology clinic or journal (like, for example, Psychology Today). It’s great if you’re studying basic feelings and brain activity—which is what this sentence is about—but if not, you’re probably safe with the knowledge that “affects” means “feelings” here.
If you think that’s a bit complicated, no hard affects. That is, no hard feelings. You probably don’t have to worry about this one too much unless you’re in the field of psychology.
But now if you come across a line about a graduation speaker having a huge affect on her audience, you can piece together whether the writer misspelled “effect” or the entire graduating class was moved to tears.
Affected as an Adjective
Well, this one comes out of left field. But affected can indeed be used as an adjective to mean pretentious, artificial, or designed to impress. It usually isn’t a compliment, and means that someone is acting stuck-up or trying to look like they’re more important than they actually are.
Note that when someone acts affected, it looks very different from when people are affected by something on an emotional level, like the soldiers above.
Here’s a literary example:
‘And yet’—the regent scratched one ear gently in affected abstraction—‘I wouldn’t call myself exactly incompetent.’
See what the regent did there? His scratch is “affected” because this guy clearly knows he is not incompetent. In fact, he is very competent. He may even think he’s the most competent person around. Think of it this way: the regent’s behavior is affected by his own arrogance and sense of superiority.
What kind of effect do you think that has on the people around this guy?
Recap: When to Use Affect or Effect
Let’s recap exactly how and when to use which word.:
Use “affect” as the verb in a sentence when you’re talking about producing change or making a difference. For example, a new discovery can affect a scientific theory, and failing a test can affect someone’s mood.
Here are some synonyms of affect: alter, change, influence, modify, and impact (the verb version). That list should affect your understanding of the word. In this case, “affect” would mean “improve.”
“Effect” is a noun, and it is the outcome of an event or situation that created a change. The effect of the change can be big or small, but the fact that something changed is what makes the noun form of effect so important. For example, you can feel the effects of a cold or an earthquake, and the sun coming out can have a positive effect on your mood.
Some synonyms of effect include words like result, repercussion, consequence, outcome, aftermath, and the noun version of impact.
Affect vs. Effect Grammar Quiz
Let’s test how effective this explanation was! Test your understanding of affect and effect with our short and fun quiz. Keep track of your mistakes and comment on any questions that come up.
Do you need more details? There’s no more effective way to get to know a word than to see it in print.
What makes these two little words extra tricky is that they sound pretty much identical. Yes, that’s the homophone thing we mentioned earlier. For the most part, people will pronounce affect and effect almost exactly the same. But, every once in awhile, they won’t.
If you listen closely, in some cases you’ll be able to hear a slight difference in the first syllable of the two different words. So, “effect” has a slightly stronger “eh” sound, like in “red,” while affect is pronounced a bit more lazily, as “uh-ffect.” But don’t count on those slight differences to tell one word from the other. Only a very careful enunciator will make the distinction at all, and it’s a very subtle distinction, anyway.
On top of pronunciation, there are a few other phrases and unusual uses of these two words that deserve a glance. Here goes:
- There’s a whole scholarly field called affect studies, which studies affect—the emotional kind. You can even read all about how emotion is a big, academic deal in The Affect Theory Reader.
- Personal effects is an idiom: in this case, effects essentially means belongings. Chances are, your belongings have had some effect on your wallet, closet space, or personal life. Hence, personal effects.
- Effective means successful in bringing about a desired result.
- Affective means producing affect, in the emotional sense. If The Affect Theory Reader affects how you feel about affect, that would make it an affective book.
So, if this article was affective, you were emotionally moved by learning the difference between affect and effect. If it was effective, you’ll use those words correctly from now on. It’s pretty much a win-win situation.
How to Direct Your Brain to Focus On Things That Matter and Deliver
You juggle multiple tasks at one time not getting anything done. You lose focus easily and gets overwhelmed with so many things to do. Distractions seem to be everywhere that makes it nearly impossible to accomplish anything.
Before you know it, your twenty-four hours in a day are over and you still have not finished the task you’re supposed to do.
Time is a very important resource. Once it slips out of your hands, there’s no way you can turn it back.
We are all given the same number of hours. Many would say the difference lies on how we use those hours, but I would argue that attention is far more important than the time we have.
We can have all the time in the world, but if our attention is diffused everywhere, we will hardly get the results we desire.
As Tony Robbins has said,
How The Brain Processes Attention
The brain is a powerful organ that is capable of processing loads of information. It controls your behavior depending on how you shape it. It has magnificent qualities that is capable of rewiring neural connections to strengthen new habits and weaken poor behaviors.
However, it has a fundamental vulnerability that can affect your performance and productivity. The brain is very sensitive to interference or being distracted.
The brain has limited cognitive control abilities which can affect your goals and your ability to fight distractions.
In the book The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World, authors Adam Gazzaley and Larry Rosen presented a thorough explanation of how performance diminishes because of the interferences that the brain encounters.
Often times, you have a specific goal in mind yet something hinders you from successfully completing that goal. Interference is something that obstructs another process. It can be internally induced or externally inspired by sensory stimuli.
Interference can be in a form of distraction or interruption.
When you are bothered by the random thoughts in your mind, you are being distracted internally. When a notification from your phone or chatter around you steal your attention, you are being distracted externally.
Most of the time, you wish to ignore these distractions to accomplish your goal. You either win against them or they win against you.
Interruptions, however, happen when you make a conscious decision to engage in more than one task at one time. You are attempting to fulfill different tasks with different goals at the same time. This is what many call as multitasking but its nature is simply “task switching.”
Many people are wired to believe that they are great at multitasking. They are very proud of it so much that they flaunt it on their resumés. Many employers also put heavy demands on their employees by requiring them to accomplish many tasks at the same time.
But the brain does not favor this kind of conditions.
Neuroscientist Richard Davidson found that key circuitry in the prefrontal cortex gets into a synchronized state during sharp focus.
The stronger the focus, the stronger the neural lock in which makes it easier to attend to a task.
During sharp focus, the brain maps the information you already know to connect it with what you are trying to learn.
“The optimal brain state for getting work done well is marked by greater neural harmony — a rich, well-timed interconnection among diverse brain areas. In this state, ideally, the circuits needed for the task at hand are highly active while those irrelevant are quiescent, with the brain precisely attuned to the demands of the moment. When our brains are in the zone we are more likely to perform at our personal best whatever our pursuit.”
Attention is a very important skill to master. It is difficult to do anything if you rarely have focused attention long enough to code it into your brain.
Attention is your key to open the door of productivity and better performance.
If attention is very important for the optimal performance of the brain, why do we engage in interference-inducing behaviors?
Two Reasons Why Interferences Steal Our Attention
When you know the reasons why things happen, it is easier to formulate a plan that will address those reasons. You’ll understand how lack of attention degrades your performance. You’ll learn how to align your goals with what the brain favors.
1. Brain Seeks Novelty
You know you need to finish something, yet, you are more inclined to pick up your phone and check your notifications. After all, you deserve a break. But the 15-minute break becomes a one-hour random scrolling through your news feed.
This happens because the brain appreciates novelty. Researchers have shown that novelty is associated with reward processing in the brain.
Most people are wired to seek fun and immediate reward.
In a research, authors Bunzek and Düzel explained that there’s an area in the brain called the substantia nigra/ventral segmental area or SN/VTA. It responds to novel stimuli and closely linked to hippocampus and the amygdala which play large roles in learning and memory.
They found out in the experiment that the SN/VTA only activated when shown novel stimuli. The brain’s reaction to novelty shows increased dopamine levels which is closely related to “reward seeking experience.”
In the book The Distracted Mind, authors have said:
“The novelty load is undoubtedly higher when frequently switching between new tasks than when just staying put, so it is logical that the overall reward gains, and thus the fun factor as well, are heightened when multitasking. In addition, the act of receiving an earlier reward is often more highly valued, even if a delayed reward has a greater overall associated value.”
2. You Are An Information-Seeking Creature
By nature, we are information-seeking creatures which have been evident since ancient times. In fact, information foraging has been compared with the food foraging which has evolved among primates.
In the past, animals forage food in order to survive. Neuroscientist Adam Gazzaley and psychologist Larry Rosen used this mechanism as a basis to explain why we engage in interference-inducing behaviors.
Evolutionary biologist Eric Charnov developed an optimal foraging theory known as the “marginal value theorem.” It circulates around the idea where organisms like to get maximum benefit for minimum effort.
Animals forage for food in “patchy” environments where food is found but in limited quantity. They move from patch to patch where there are food resources until they become depleted over time. If getting to the next patch is easy, the animal will simply move on to find food. If it requires too much effort, they’re likely to maximize the current patch before moving.
This theory applies to the information foraging among humans.
Instead of foraging for food resources, you are foraging for information. You jump from different websites or resources as you gradually deplete the information you get from them.
When you feel like you got what you need, you become bored foraging information from the same patch. Because of your knowledge of the diminishing return on that patch, you decide to make a switch to a new resource that will give you the maximum benefit for your minimal effort.
This is what happens when you are thinking of the next book to read even when you’re not yet done reading a current book. Or when you give in to check the new information when your phone beeps.
Online advertisers and companies are aware of this mechanism. You are being lured to click relevant headlines or content presented to you because they know you are driven by information foraging.
As a result, your attention is divided and diffused everywhere.
Psychologist Herbert Simon has said:
“Information consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention.”
When you have focused attention, you’ll improve your memory skills. You’ll sustain your concentration on anything serious and important. You’ll be more present with whatever you are doing at any given time.
The Kind of Attention You Need to Develop
The most fundamental feature of attention you need to master is selectivity.
Selective Attention allows you to direct your brainpower in a focused manner.
In order for your brain to operate at its optimal state, you have to be selective and strategic in what you store and feed it.
Selective Attention works like a beam of a flashlight. You select what you want to focus on and things outside the beam of light dimmer. It allows you to focus on what is important and tune out unimportant details.
Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons performed one of the most famous experiment in psychology that shows selective attention in action. If you have not seen the experiment, watch the video clip below. If you knew about it, feel free to scroll down.
In the experiment, participants were asked to watch a video of two teams passing a ball. They were asked to count how many times the players in white shirts pass the ball. Mid-way through the video, a gorilla walks in, stands in the middle, pounds his chest, then exits.
The participants were asked about their answers. Then, they were asked if they saw the gorilla. Most of them missed the gorilla entirely. But after being told about it, they cannot believe they’ve missed it.
Three Ways to Improve Your Selective Attention
“Your focus is your reality.” — Yoda
You are exposed to loads of sensory information — something that frequently steals your attention. Since attention is a limited resource, you cannot pay attention to every sensory stimulus around you. It must be distributed on things that really matter.
1. Identify Your Elephants
Most people have a long to-do list and choose to do the easiest things first so they can have the satisfaction of crossing something off their list. What happens is that the difficult tasks are pushed later on when the brain is already tired.
Cognitive neuroscientist Sandra Chapman suggests focusing on your two elephants when writing your to-do list. These elephants are the most important things you need to do on that day that will help you achieve the results you desire.
When you are clear about your priorities, you develop a laser-focused attention on things that really matter. You’re able to identify the things you need to ignore and where to devote your energy. You’re able to tackle the more difficult task and produce more effortful thinking.
In the words of T. Boone Pickens,
“When you’re hunting elephants, don’t get distracted chasing rabbits.”
2. Identify The Questions You Aim To Seek Answer For
Before hunting for information, prepare a list of questions that you aim to seek an answer for. Your objectives for seeking information must be very clear to avoid moving from patches to patches.
You know there’s so much information competing for your attention. You will be enticed to click different contents that can possibly steal both your attention and time that must be devoted to the important stuff.
When you are clear with your questions, you’ll have directions on what kind of information to hunt. You don’t simply pick information that is of no use to you. You’ll have a clear target before you even launch your hunting game.
The importance of focusing your attention on something that matters cannot be discounted. However, to strengthen your selective attention, you must also develop your act of ignoring.
Neuroscientist Adam Gazzaley and his team performed an experiment where they asked participants to pay attention to relevant stimuli and ignore the irrelevant. While they performed the tasks, they scanned their brain activity in an MRI scanner.
They found out that there was more activity when participants paid attention to relevant stimuli than passively viewing them. There is also less activity when they ignored irrelevant stimuli than passively viewing them.
“What we learned from this experiment was that the act of ignoring is not a passive process; rather, the goal to ignore something is an active one that is mediated by the top-down suppression of activity below baseline levels of passively viewing.”
Selective attention helps you filter out the noise and focus on the signal.
3. Identify the Greater Reward Instead of Focusing on Immediate Reward
Almost everyone is guilty of simultaneously engaging in different tasks at the same time. It creates an inner fulfillment that you are actually being productive.
Instead of constantly switching your attention between two tasks, devote your focus to one task at a time and identify the greater reward for finishing it. Continual switching saps attention needed for effortful tasks.
To address the novelty that the brain needs, engage in a different task after devoting enough time to a certain task.
You’ll find that this is difficult before it becomes easy. But as you get used to it, you will be rewarded by increased quality outputs. You’ll finish your tasks a lot easier and a lot better.
Improve Your Attention to Improve Your Performance
If you want to succeed at something, you’ll have to improve your attention instead of becoming distracted. You’ll have to ignore doing something easier in favor of something harder that offers a more favorable reward.
Instead of simply expecting a maximum benefit for your minimum effort, you’ll actually go out of your way to put the necessary work.
In turn, you become different from others who hunt from the same patches jumping from one to another. You’ll stand out in a crowd full of distractions.
You become the master of your attention.
You’ll minimize the scatter in your life. You’ll gain confidence as you stop juggling tasks and actually start producing something.
In turn, you’ll see a great improvement in your performance. Your outputs are not simply mediocre, rather, a reflection of who you want to be.
Аудирование в формате ЕГЭ – Вариант 3
Предлагаем попробовать свои силы и выполнить полное аудирование в формате ЕГЭ. Ответы и полные тексты к аудио даны в спойлерах. Здесь представлен вариант 3.
Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего А-F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1-7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды.
1. The best cafes are those located near busy pedestrian streets.
2. A cafe should be quiet if it wants to attract readers.
3. Playing board games with friends is a great cafe pastime.
4. The decor of a cafe can make or break its business.
5. A cafe can make a business meeting more casual and less dull.
6. You can even watch news programmes in cafes these days.
7. A town should have a variety of cafes for every taste.
A – 3
B – 5
C – 6
D – 2
E – 1
F – 4
Speaker A: Sitting around drinking coffee has never been one of my favourite things to do, but I do love playing games, and so do some of my mates. So were decided to meet at weekends and do that in a cafe. The place we go to has got a lot of fun things to choose from, and sometimes we bring our own. It’s a nice quiet and relaxed place, and never too busy, so we like it.
Speaker B: I work in an advertising agency and creativity is a focus. I meet with clients in our offices quite often, but more and more I’ve started asking them to meet me at a cafe down the street from our building. The atmosphere and decor are really arty, and the clients tend to feel a bit more relaxed when we meet there. I think both myself and my clients can come up with more interesting ideas for campaigns while were there.
Speaker С: Cafés have almost become like living rooms. It reminds me of that TV series Friends, where they drink coffee on a big sofa as if they’re at home. In fact, a lot of cafes have put televisions up on the wall. It’s usually just in the background, so it doesn’t steal your attention. It’s not to everyone’s taste, but I think it’s nice to look up occasionally and see a bit of current affairs or a sporting event.
Speaker D: For those of us who like to spend hours with a good book, a cafe is an excellent place to do it. That is, of course, if it’s not one with loud music, big-screen TVs and loads of noisy people. There are quite of few of those in my area, and they’re obviously not interested in keeping my business. That’s OK; I’ve got at least two or three to choose from that cater to bookworms like myself.
Speaker E: I think there are more cafes in my town than people! That’s what life is like in the Mediterranean. The weathers nice most of the year, and it’s great to sit outside, catch up on everyone’s news and, of course, do people-watching. The best places to do that are in sightseeing areas, with lots of people walking up and down the pavement, looking at the sights and enjoying the day. You see all walks of life in these places.
Speaker F: There are lots of different cafés in my town. A surprising number, in fact. To be honest, I don’t know how they all stay in business. A few of them have really bad interiors – bright fluorescent lighting, tacky furniture, even cracked plates. I hardly ever see anyone in them either. In my opinion, the look and feel of a café is the most important thing. Otherwise, it’s not going to be successful.
Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений A-G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated).
A) Ryan doesn’t do some of the things mentioned in the recycling lesson.
B) Until today, Macy has used the bin in her bedroom for recycling only.
C) Ryan’s dad has got a very large recycling bin in his office.
D) Macy never eats food in her bedroom.
E) Ryan has visited a recycling plant in the past.
F) Macy makes a complaint about rinsing containers.
G) Ryan’s family empty their recycling bin less frequently than their rubbish bin.
A – 1
B – 2
C – 3
D – 2
E – 3
F – 1
G – 1
Macy: Hey Ryan, what did you think of our class lesson about recycling?
Ryan: It was very informative. We do recycling at home, but we don’t do all the things Mr Singh mentioned, such as rinsing bottles and containers out before you put them in the recycling, or keeping bins far recycling in other parts of the house. Do you, Macy?
Macy: We only have one recycling bin in the house, in the kitchen. We’ve got small rubbish bins in other rooms, such as the living room and our bedrooms. I put lots of things in the rubbish bin in my bedroom that could be recycled though.
Ryan: Our house is similar. We’ve got one recycling bin in the kitchen that we mainly use, although my dad’s got a bin in his office that he puts his papers into. Funny though, he rarely empties it!
Macy: The rubbish bin in my bedroom is full of mostly recyclable things, so I felt a bit bad about that. I took all of it to the kitchen straight away.
Ryan: That’s good of you.
Macy: I’ve decided that from now on I’m only going to pul recyclable materials in the bin in my bedroom , just old homework papers I don’t need or cardboard packaging. No more banana skins!
Ryan: We’re not allowed to eat in our bedrooms. Mum hates the mess we leave.
Macy: I guess I’ve just been too lazy to take things into the kitchen. That’s going to change now!
Ryan: I didn’t realise how rinsing things helped. I didn’t know they have to rinse things out at the recycling plant before they can recycle it. We’ll save them time if we do it, which makes their job easier.
Macy: Yes, that’s a good idea. The only problem is we have to use our water to do it. Some things take a lot of rinsing. But really, it does make the recycling bin cleaner.
Ryan: I know what you mean. We empty ours when it gets full, but sometimes it takes a while for that to happen. It’s large, and we don’t empty it as often as the rubbish bin. So it’s better hygiene if those jars and plastic containers are well rinsed.
Macy: Exactly. Well, these are good changes to make round the house.
Ryan: I agree. They’re useful and easy to do, too! See you later, Macy!
Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях выберите правильный вариант ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.
1) What is true about Martin’s appointments with students?
1) He sees about a dozen students every day.
2) Students pay a small fee for the service.
3) He usually meets with a student for an hour.
2) The questionnaire asks students about…
1) previous work experience.
2) what careers they’re interested in.
3) the kind of situations they like.
3) What kind of answers do students give in regard to their interests?
1) They sometimes put down several completely different interests.
2) They give a clear indication of their interests.
3) They often don’t put anything down.
4) Students return to see Martin …
1) because they’ve changed their minds about their interests.
2) to fill out their questionnaire forms.
3) to complain about the advice they’ve been given.
5) What does Martin do with the students’ СVs?
1) He doesn’t handle any aspect of that.
2) He reviews them and then gives them to his assistant.
3) He gets his assistant to make initial comments.
6) Martin doesn’t do practice interviews because …
1) he can’t fit them into his daily work schedule.
2) he doesn’t think they’re useful.
3) students don’t like doing them.
7) What advice does Martin give about talking about weaknesses?
1) Try to describe them so they sound more positive.
2) Avoid being honest about them.
3) Spend as little time on them as possible.
1 – 1
2 – 3
3 – 1
4 – 1
5 – 3
6 – 1
7 – 1
Presenter: Hi everyone and welcome to our programme, Youth Talk. Today our guest is careers advisor Martin Shaw, who’s going to discuss how he helps students find a career and a job. Thanks for joining us, Mr Shaw.
Speaker: I’m glad to be here. Please, call me Martin.
Presenter: Tell us what you do in your job, Martin.
Speaker: Well, I work for a university in their careers advice office. I meet with university students on a daily basis. Students make an appointment with me, which is free of charge and included in their student services package. I see about ten to twelve students a day, and we meet for around twenty minutes to half an hour.
Presenter: How do you help them find a career?
Speaker: For starters, I administer a questionnaire which determines their aptitudes. It asks them what skills they think they have, and it also asks them about their likes and dislikes, how well they get on with others, whether they like to work independently, and whether they’re self-motivated, highly organised, or very creative. They answer the questionnaire and I assess it at a later date.
Presenter: How do you assess the information they present to you?
Speaker: First I look at what subjects they’ve put down that seem to interest them the most. Keep in mind that sometimes they don’t know exactly what those are, so they might put down a wide range. Then, I take a look at their skills. If, for example, they’re interested in the arts, are highly creative and communicative, and like working with people, I might suggest a career in advertising.
Presenter: So you meet with students more than once, yes?
Speaker: Oh definitely. Firstly, I have to give them the results of their questionnaire, but really, I meet with them as often as they like. The goal is to get them on the right track. Sometimes a student comes back to me because they have second thoughts about their preferences, meaning they’ve realised they’d rather work alone than with other people, for example. That will obviously affect the advice I give them.
Presenter: I see. What other types of assistance do you give students?
Speaker: I help them with their CVs, to make sure they’re well-written and informative. I get them to bring a CV in at our first meeting, and I usually ask my assistant to look it over and make comments, which I review, Then I meet with the student again, usually when I give them their questionnaire results, and I give them some tips on how to improve their CV.
Presenter: Do you discuss interview techniques?
Speaker: I usually give them some information about the dos and don’ts of interviewing, and we discuss any questions they have. I’d like to do practice interviewing, but we simply don’t have the time or resources for that, which is a shame because students would find it very useful. I give them advice on how to answer tougher interview questions though, such as when an interviewer asks you what your weaknesses are.
Presenter: And what do you say to that?
Speaker: Well, obviously in an interview you should be truthful, but you would never want to say, “I hate getting up in the morning.” While that may be a true weakness, you can just imagine how that would go down in an interview! I urge students to think of a weakness that can actually be a strength. You could say that you tend to spend too much time on organising, so you have to stop for a moment and prioritise duties. This sounds impressive in an interview.
No-deal Brexit: 10 ways it could affect you
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Prime Minister Boris Johnson has vowed to leave the EU “do or die” by the 31 October – the date the UK must depart if no deal has been reached.
But a government document outlining “reasonable worst case assumptions” in the event of such a no-deal Brexit has warned of rising food and fuel prices, disruption to medicine supplies and public disorder.
An extra £2.1bn of funding has been announced to help deal with the consequences of no deal.
How could you be affected if the UK does leave the EU without an agreement?
1. The contents of your shopping basket may change
What you find on the supermarket shelves could well be where you see the first effects.
Almost 30% of our food currently comes from the EU, and it is likely that some foods, such as fresh vegetables and fruit, will become more scarce and more expensive in the event of no deal.
- Some fresh food supplies will decrease
- Key ingredients for food made in the UK may be in shorter supply
- There won’t be a shortage of food overall, but there could be reduced availability and choice
- Prices may also increase “which could impact vulnerable groups”
In preparation, supermarkets say they have been stockpiling some foods – but they are unable to do that for some fresh fruit and veg.
The government has said it will continue to recognise EU standards for imported food, to minimise disruption.
It has also published a “tariff schedule”, which has removed most tariffs on imports in the event of no deal.
Shoppers planning to buy from companies based in the EU, Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland after a no-deal Brexit have also been warned credit and debit card charges may be higher and payments may take longer.
2. Electricity and gas prices may go up
Although there is not expected to be an immediate disruption to electricity or gas supplies, there are likely to be significant price rises for businesses and households, the government’s Yellowhammer report warns.
The market price for electricity could climb because of a fall in the value of the pound against the euro, but also as a result of cutting ties with EU energy markets.
Yellowhammer warned this could mean that some energy firms “exit” the energy market, “exacerbating” the economic and political impact of Brexit.
The warnings echo the findings of a 2020 House of Lords report, which said the UK could be “more vulnerable to supply shortages in the event of extreme weather or unplanned generation outages” in the event of a no-deal Brexit.
46% UK domestic production
45% Imported via European pipelines, inc from Russia and Norway
8% Liquefied natural gas imports
Source: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, 2020 provisional data (figs may not total 100% due to rounding)
The risk would arise as a result of the UK’s exit from the EU’s Internal Energy Market, it said.
The bulk of the UK’s natural gas imports come via Norway, which is part of the Internal Energy Market, although it is not an EU member. But the government says trade in gas between the UK and Norway will continue in its current form regardless.
3. You will need to take extra measures when travelling to Europe
Millions of people from the UK travel abroad each year – the vast majority of journeys made to Europe.
If you are planning to make a journey to an EU member state after Brexit, the government is advising you to check you have the right paperwork.
Travel to Ireland will not change, even if there’s no deal. You’ll continue to be able to travel and work there in the same way as before.
The government is advising you to make sure your passport is valid for at least six months if you are travelling to most countries in Europe – the full list is here.
Until recently, UK citizens who renewed their passport before it expired could have up to nine months of the remaining validity added to their new travel document.
But the government has now warned that this time carried over may not count towards the six-month requirement after a no-deal Brexit. You can check if your passport has enough time left with this government tool.
You’ll need to renew your passport before travelling if you do not have enough validity left. It usually takes three weeks.
You won’t need a visa for stays of up to 90 days out of any 180-day period in the EU or Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland (the European Economic Area). However, you may need a visa or permit to stay for longer, or to work or study.
When new rules are confirmed, information about visa requirements will be on each country’s travel advice page.
The government has also advised that at EU borders you may need to:
- show a return or onward ticket
- show you have enough money for your stay
- use separate queueing lanes from EU, EEA and Swiss citizens
The government’s Yellowhammer report also warns there may also be increased immigration checks at EU borders causing delays at airports and ports.
European health cover
The government is advising travellers “whether there’s a deal or not” to “get appropriate travel insurance with healthcare cover”.
Ministers say it is “particularly important” to get travel insurance with the right cover if you have a pre-existing medical condition. This is because the EHIC scheme covers pre-existing conditions, while many travel insurance policies do not.
However you intend to travel, in the event of no-deal Brexit, the government says, you should check before you leave for any delays or disruption.
If you intend to drive in the EU, you’ll need some extra documents:
- a “green card”, which proves your insurance provides the minimum required cover (obtained from your vehicle insurance company)
- a GB sticker
- an International Driving Permit for some countries (you can check if you need one on the Post Office website)
The government says flights, ferries and cruises, the Eurostar and Eurotunnel and bus and coach services between the UK and the EU will continue to run as normal.
However, the government does warn some bus and coach services to non-EU countries, such as Switzerland or Andorra, may not be able to run.
After Brexit you will not be able to use the existing pet passport scheme and will instead need to follow a different process, involving a number of vet’s tests. The process could take up to four months.
If you have a UK bank account and intend to use your bank card to pay for goods and services while you are in the EU as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, the government has warned that it may become more expensive.
4. You may need to check medication is available and it may be more expensive
While there are regular fluctuations in medicine supplies, there are concerns a no-deal Brexit could make shortages worse.
The government’s Yellowhammer document warns supplies of medicines and medical products are “particularly vulnerable” to disruption at Channel ports. While some products can be stockpiled, others can’t because of their short shelf life, it says.
More than 12,000 medicines are used by the NHS, and about 7,000 come from or via the EU.
Ministers and NHS leaders say every effort is being made to ensure there will be enough medicines and clinical equipment available in the event of delays to imports from the EU.
The government has announced a further £434m of funding and other measures, including:
- extra warehouse space for medicines
- securing additional roll-on, roll-off freight capacity in ports away from Dover and Folkestone
- building buffer stocks
- booking plane space for products requiring immediate shipment
- making changes to regulatory requirements
- strengthening processes to deal with shortages
However, the National Audit Office has said there are still “significant” gaps in the government’s preparation regarding the NHS and care homes.
5. UK nationals living abroad may have to take extra measures
About 1.3 million UK-born people live in the other 27 EU countries.
The UK government has requested that EU countries reciprocate its promise to uphold the rights of EU citizens in the UK, meaning UK citizens living in the EU would be able to continue their lives broadly as now.
In event of no deal, this would ensure they would have continued access to employment, healthcare, education, benefits and other services.
However, the government’s Yellowhammer document warns that as UK nationals will lose their EU citizenship, they can “expect to lose associated rights and access to services over time”.
The government has announced a public information campaign and an increase in consular support for Britons living abroad, costing £138m.
It advises UK citizens living in the EU to subscribe to updates from the relevant country advice pages.
UK nationals living in, working in, or visiting the EU may find their access to healthcare in EU member states will change after the UK leaves the EU with no deal. This will depend on decisions made by each country.
However, the UK government says it is seeking bilateral agreements to maintain healthcare rights, as a top priority.
The UK government will continue to pay state pension, child benefits, and disability benefits to eligible UK nationals in the EU.
The UK’s exit from the EU will not change existing double taxation arrangements, which apply to EU countries.
These ensure everyone – not just British citizens – living in a country that has a treaty with the UK will not pay tax in two countries on the same income or gain – and determine which country has primary taxing rights.
UK nationals who live in the EU, European Economic Area or Switzerland should swap their UK driving licences for a local licence before 31 October 2020. If there is no deal, licence exchange arrangements may stop and UK licence holders may have to retake their driving test in the country where they live.
6. EU citizens need to apply for ‘settled status’
The UK government has reached an agreement with the EU, as well as Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland, that will protect the rights of EU citizens and their family members living in the UK.
There are currently 2.37 million EU nationals working in Britain, according to the Office of National Statistics (ONS).
The ONS has revised its estimates for overall arrivals to the UK – both from the EU and the rest of the world. Those new figures show the number of people arriving from the EU had been rising before the referendum.
Statisticians have not yet adjusted the figures for EU immigration after 2020, but unrevised figures showed a steep decline.
If you are an EU citizen and living in the UK, the government has a tool to find out what you need to do and when.
Home Office minister Brandon Lewis has warned that the UK will deport EU citizens after Brexit if they do not apply for the right to remain in time.
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